Ecosystem Ecology Contents

  • Section 1. Ecosystem Ecology
    Energy flows while materials cycle. Net primary production is the difference between gross primary production and respiration. Ecological Footprint is defined.
  • Section 2. Primary Production and Respiration
    Primary production and respiration are intimately linked and can be estimated by changes in biomass, carbon dioxide, or oxygen. Primary production is spatially variable. Limits to primary production for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are explored.
  • Section 3. Secondary Production
    Primary production and respiration are intimately linked and can be estimated by changes in biomass, carbon dioxide, or oxygen. Primary production is spatially variable. Limits to primary production for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are explored.
  • Section 4. Ecosystem Energetics
    Consumption efficiencies determine energy flows through grazer food chains. Heterotrophic and autotrophic ecosystems are explained. Eltonian pyramids characterize ecosystems. Energy flows differently through aquatic and terrestrial systems. Residence time is defined.
  • Section 5. Ecosystem Services
    Ecological Footprint varies by country/region and over time. Ecosystem services are critical, but their values are difficult to assess. Humans appropriate a large fraction of primary production. "Tragedy of the commons" is defined.